Affordable and comfortable housing is a primary need for all citizens. It is also regarded as a primary indicator in ensuring sustainable development in a community. From an environmental perspective, Housing should be accountable to reduce greenhouse gas emission, optimize usage of energy and material and control waste. The world today is experiencing a major housing crisis, with a lack of equitable distribution and declining infrastructure worldwide. In most developed and developing nations, sustainable housing is viewed as unaffordable for low-middle income groups. Therefore, the challenge remains with integrating sustainable aspects within affordable housing.

The gap in low-middle income countries is more prominent, where some urban settlements are growing so rapidly that governments are unable to keep up with the rapid scale of urbanisation, and thus unable to develop infrastructure fast enough. The result is millions living in inadequate conditions, large scale inequalities in quality of life and wellbeing, and lack of trust in governments.